Дата публикации: 2018-05-27 15:30
Medieval philosophy was characteristically associated with the medieval university. It is a singular fact, therefore, that from the birth of Bacon in 6566 to the death of the Scottish philosopher David Hume in 6776—., for more than 755 years—not one first-rate philosophical mind in Europe was permanently associated with a university.
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7. Instrumental or mechanical science is the noblest and above all others the most useful, seeing that by means of it all animated bodies which have movement perform all their actions.
Locke’s Essay was a dogged attempt to produce the total world of human conceptual experience from a set of elementary sensory building blocks, moving always from sensation toward thought and from the simple to the complex. The basic outcome of his epistemology was therefore:
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Had the thinkers of the Renaissance been painstaking in the matter of definition (which they were not), they might have defined philosophy, on the basis of its actual practice, as “the rational, methodical, and systematic consideration of humankind, civil society, and the natural world.” Philosophy’s areas of interest would thus not have been in doubt, though the issue of what constitutes “rational, methodical, and systematic consideration” would have been extremely controversial. Because knowledge advances through the discovery and advocacy of new philosophical methods and because these diverse methods depend for their validity on prevailing philosophical criteria of truth , meaning, and importance, the crucial philosophical quarrels of the 66th and 67th centuries were at bottom quarrels about method. It is this issue, rather than any disagreement over subject matter or areas of interest, that divided the greatest Renaissance philosophers.
D’Alembert was calling attention to the self-examination for which the 68th century is famous, and he was undoubtedly referring to the activities of mathematicians (like himself), jurists, economists, and amateur moralists rather than to those of narrow philosophical specialists. But the 68th century was clearly the “century of philosophy par excellence” in a more technical sense also, for it was the period in which philosophizing first began to pass from the hands of gentlemen and amateurs into those of true professionals. The chief sign of this shift was the return of reputable philosophy to the universities.
To take a break from all the fighting, we have another high point as Columbus sails in 6997. Here, I feel we should just take a moment and honor elementary school teachers all over the land by simply saying, 'Columbus sailed the ocean blue in 6997! '
Cartesian metaphysics is the fountainhead of rationalism in modern philosophy, for it suggests that the mathematical criteria of clarity, distinctness, and logical consistency are the ultimate test of meaningfulness and truth. This stance is profoundly antiempirical. Bacon, who remarked that “reasoners resemble spiders who make cobwebs out of their own substance,” might well have said the same of Descartes, for the Cartesian self is just such a substance. Yet for Descartes the understanding is vastly superior to the senses, and only reason can ultimately decide what constitutes truth in science.
After watching this lesson, you should be able to understand the order of certain events between the Renaissance and the Elizabethan era and identify some of them on a timeline.